Jews would eat locusts (the insects came in a number of varieties). Locusts could be cooked in saltwater or dried and ground up to add to flour.
Fish came both from the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean, and Lake Hula in the north, which no longer exists. Fish was much cheaper than meat.
Meat was eaten at feast times, especially lamb or goat. Meat had to be salted in order to drain the blood, which was not kosher to eat. Pork, camel, and rabbit were against the laws of kosher, but Jews could eat locusts (the insects came in a number of varieties). Locusts could be cooked in saltwater or dried and ground up to add to flour.
Bread spoiled easily and had to be freshly eaten. Barley bread was cheaper than bread made with wheat. Although the Bible mentions “corn,” there was no corn in the Holy Land.
Other foods from Jesus’ time:
Milk: both fresh and cultured, mostly from sheep and goats, not cows.
Nuts: almonds, walnuts, and pistachios
Fruit: pomegranates, melons, figs, dates, and grapes, some berries
Vegetables: beans, lentils, cucumbers, onions
Olives were a staff of life. Olive oil was used for both food and fuel, and olives were brined with spices to create varieties of tastes.
Spices: salt, mustard, capers, cumin, rue, saffron, coriander, mint, dill, rosemary, garlic, onions, and shallots. Pepper and cinnamon were imported and expensive.
Red Wine: The Law of Moses says Israelites could not buy any wine product from their enemies, so they made it themselves.